As I got off the plane in St. Louis in September 2008, I didnâ€™t realize I was beginning a journey that would change my life.
On that day, Iâ€“along with several researchers working with Professor Akbar Ahmed, American Universityâ€™s Chair of Islamic Studiesâ€“began a grueling project aimed at studying Americaâ€™s Muslim population and its relationship to American identity. Now, nearly two years, 75 cities and 100 mosques later, Journey into America: The Challenge of Islam, will be published by the Brookings Institution Press this month.
In addition to providing unprecedented insight into Americaâ€™s Muslim community, it also led me to look at my own country, the United States, in a different way. I had taken Professor Ahmedâ€™s class on improving relations between Islam and the West as an underclassman shortly after the US invaded Iraq in 2003 and had traveled across the Muslim world with him for the book Journey into Islam: The Crisis of Globalization, listening to Muslim voices in countries including Jordan, Pakistan, and India.
On that trip, during which Muslims in eight countries cited â€œAmerican negative perceptions of Islamâ€ as the greatest threat to the Muslim world, I was ready for anything and eager to learn. After all, I had spent the second half of my life living and traveling widely around the world, from Kenya to China, and studying foreign lands in my international relations courses.
America was a different matter. This, I thought, was a country that I knew. Yet although I lived in the Baltimore suburbs until I was a teenager and went to college in Washington, DC, like many Americans I was familiar with only a few states, and had never experienced entire regions like the South.
Assisting a world-renowned anthropologist on a De Tocqueville-esque quest would change this. Like that earlier foreign traveler, Professor Ahmed saw his endeavor as a tribute to a nation that had welcomed him so warmly in crafting a study which would examine both the strengths of America and the parts that could be strengthened.
Within a few hours on our first dayâ€”which took us to Somali refugees in a St. Louis housing projectâ€”I realized I was experiencing something unique. Though Iâ€™m a Christian, I was seeing the country through Muslim eyes, including those of my professor.
But this was only part of the story. In order to see how Muslims were fitting into Americaâ€”and what it meant to fit inâ€”we would need to talk to Americans from all backgrounds and religions. Assisting us would be data from the roughly two thousand surveys we distributed in the field as well as countless conversations on our travels.
Over the next long months, we saw the ravages of inner city Detroit and the mansions of Palm Beach, Florida; the serene, impoverished Hopi Indian reservation in Arizona and a Silicon Valley â€œhackers conferenceâ€ with scientists talking of settlements on the Moon and Mars. We spoke at the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, spent an afternoon with Mennonites in Texas, were welcomed by the Mormon leadership in Salt Lake City, and visited coal miners in the West Virginia wilderness.
The diversity of people and beliefs was striking and inspiring. And, for the first time, I saw the fall colors in New England, the Grand Canyon, and a Hawaiian sunset.
We found the Muslim community to be hospitable and patriotic, as they often said that America was the best place to be a Muslim because of religious freedom. But the community is on edge, divided and facing a leadership crisisâ€”contributing to the â€œhomegrown terroristâ€ phenomenonâ€”and reeling from post-9/11 hatred and prejudice.
I was shocked to see the challenges American Muslims are facing, from kids beaten up and called terrorists at school to people incarcerated without charge and subjected to inhuman treatment and mosques being firebombed. A Muslim community that feels accepted as true Americans and is encouraged to enter the mainstream will be the best defense against homegrown terrorism.
Witnessing the challenges facing the Muslim community led me to ask a question I never had before: what does it mean to be American? Although we met Americans who had a different idea of the country (one official at a Church of Christ chapter in Austin named â€œpluralismâ€ as the greatest threat to America and the Founding Fathers as the source of this threat) for me, the team, and my professor, being American means embracing the ideals of the Founding Fathers, which include pluralism, rule of law, and civil liberties.
Today, feelings against Islam are running high, with a prominent radio host recently expressing his hope that the proposed New York mosque near Ground Zero would be blown up. Every week seems to bring a new controversy, from the high emotions of the mosque debate to last monthâ€™s discussion about the current Miss USA, a Lebanese immigrant, who was slammed as a Hezbollah agent because her surname was said to be shared by people linked to the organization.
In this environment, I was inspired during countless hours of research into American history to see how clear the Founding Fathers were on the subject of Islam in America. Thomas Jefferson learned Arabic using his Quran and hosted the first presidential iftar during Ramadan, John Adams named Prophet Muhammad (s) as one of the worldâ€™s â€œsober inquirers after truthâ€ alongside Socrates and Confucius, and Benjamin Franklin, who cited the Prophet as a model of compassion, wrote of his hope that the head cleric of Istanbul would preach Islam to Americans from a Philadelphia pulpit, so passionate was his belief in religious freedom.
Today, America faces a crisis of identity. One focal point at the core of the debate is Islam, which some Americans see as a monolithic threat seeking the takeover of the country. They are fearful and suspicious of the Muslims in their midst. For many of these citizens, being a good Americanâ€”and, for some, a good Christianâ€”means opposing and fighting Islam.
My journey has led me to conclude the opposite. Being a good American means welcoming Muslims as the Founding Fathers did and following their guidelines on matters of law and security as laid out in the Constitution. As for Christianity, the attitude of the Founding Fathers was shaped by Christian thinkers like John Locke, who declared that the true Christianâ€™s duty was to â€œpractice charity, meekness, and good-will in general towards all mankind, even to those that are not Christians.â€
Giving us hope for the future was data from our surveys, which showed that over ninety percent of Americans would vote for a Muslim for public office, and the similarly high percentage of people who are open to Muslims living in and being a part of this nation.
Some, however, inserted â€œifâ€ clauses, indicating they believed Muslims could be American only if they followed narrowly defined rules, such as ceasing to identify as â€œMuslimâ€ in favor of an exclusive â€œAmericanâ€ identity. The Founding Fathers set no such qualifications for â€œAmericanness.â€
Discovering America over the past few years has made me appreciate the inclusive vision of the Founding Fathers. Having traveled abroad, I know that their ideals also inspire people around the world, especially in Muslim countries. I can now say I am American with an awareness and pride I never had before.
With all of the challenges facing the country, perhaps the most important thing we can do as Americans is to consider who we really are. For me, being American means assuming and implementing the Founding Fathersâ€™ vision of tolerance and religious freedom. The rediscovery of that vision has reaffirmed my belief in the promise of America.
The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Frankie Martin.