Iran’s Cyber Battle
By Noah Shachtman, Wired
More and more of Iranâ€™s pro-government websites are under assault, as opposition forces launch web attacks on the Tehran regimeâ€™s online propaganda arms.
What started out as an attempt to overload a small set of official sites has now expanded, network security consultant Dancho Danchev notes. News outlets like Raja News are being attacked, too. The semi-official Fars News site is currently unavailable.
â€œWe turned our collective power and outrage into a serious weapon that we could use at our will, without ever having to feel the consequences. We practiced distributed, citizen-based warfare,â€ writes Matthew Burton, a former U.S. intelligence analyst who joined in the online assaults, thanks to a â€œpush-button tool that would, upon your click, immediately start bombarding 10 Web sites with requests.â€
But the tactic of launching these distributed denial of service, or DDOS, attacks remains hugely controversial. The author of one-web based tool, â€œPage Rebooter,â€ used by opposition supporters to send massive amounts of traffic to Iranian government sites, temporarily shut the service down, citing his discomfort with using the tool â€œto attack other websites.â€ Then, a few hours later, he turned on the service again, after his employers agreed to cover the costs of the additional traffic. WhereIsMyVote.info is opening up 16 Page Reboot windows simultaneously, to flood an array of government pages at once.
Other online supporters of the so-called â€œGreen Revolutionâ€ worry about the ethics of a democracy-promotion movement inhibitting their foesâ€™ free speech. A third group is concerned that the DDOS strikes could eat up the limited amount of bandwidth available inside Iran â€” bandwidth being used by the opposition to spread its message by Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. â€œQuit with the DDOS attacks â€” theyâ€™re just slowing down Iranian traffic and making it more difficult for the protesters to Tweet,â€ says one online activist.
But Burton â€” who helped bring Web 2.0 tools to the American spy community â€” isnâ€™t so sure. â€œGiving a citizenry the ability to turn the tables on its own government is, I think, what governance is all about. The publicâ€™s ability to strike back is something that every government should be reminded of from time to time.â€ Yet he admits to feeling â€œconflicted.â€ about participating in the strikes, he suddenly stopped. â€œI donâ€™t know why, but it just feltâ€¦creepy. I was frightened by how easy it was to sow chaos from afar, safe and sound in my apartment, where I would never have to experienceâ€“or even knowâ€“the results of my actions.â€
Meanwhile, San Francisco technologist Austin Heap has put together a set of instructions on how to set up â€œproxiesâ€â€”intermediary internet protocol (IP) addressâ€”that allow activists to get through the government firewall. And the Networked Culture blog has assembled for pro-democracy sympathizers a â€œcyberwar guide for beginners.â€ Stop publicizing these proxies over Twitter, the site recommends. Instead, send direct messages to â€œ@stopAhmadi or @iran09 and they will distributed them discretely [sic] to bloggers in Iran.â€